Clinical Outcomes After Microfracture of the Knee: Midterm Follow-up.
Microfracture is a single-stage arthroscopic procedure used to treat small- and medium-sized cartilage defects, the clinical results of which have been mixed to date.
To retrospectively evaluate prospectively collected patient-reported outcomes (PROs) after microfracture as well as to determine patient-related and defect-related factors associated with clinical outcomes and which factors predict the need for additional surgery.
Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3.
All patients between the ages of 10 and 70 years who underwent microfracture by the senior author for a focal chondral defect of the knee between January 1, 2005, and March 1, 2010, were eligible for study enrollment. Patients were excluded if they underwent concomitant procedures that violated the subchondral bone. Functional outcomes were determined using preoperative and final follow-up PROs, including the Lysholm, International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC), Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS), Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), Short Form-12 (SF-12), and overall satisfaction scores. Patient-related factors (sex, age, body mass index [BMI]) and defect-related factors (lesion size, location, concomitant procedures, prior procedures) were analyzed for correlations with outcome scores. All patient-related and defect-related factors were also analyzed as predictors for subsequent surgery.
Overall, 101 patients (102 knees; 55 male, 46 female; mean age, 35.87 ± 12.52 years; mean BMI, 26.3 ± 5.5 kg/m2; mean defect size, 2.635 ± 1.805 cm2) were included. Lesion location included 44.90% at the medial femoral condyle, 21.43% at the trochlea, 11.22% at the lateral femoral condyle, 10.20% at multiple sites, 8.16% at the patella, and 4.08% at the tibial plateau. Microfracture was performed alone in 72 of 102 (71%) knees. At a mean follow-up of 5.66 ± 2.54 years (range, 2-11 years), clinically meaningful and statistically significant improvements were seen in all PROs (P < .05) except the SF-12 mental component score. Patients who had an isolated tibial plateau defect or multiple defects demonstrated reduced improvements in the symptom rate (P = .0237). Patients with a BMI >30 kg/m2 had lower postoperative scores on the KOOS activities of daily living subscale (P = .0261) and poorer WOMAC function and WOMAC pain scores (P = .029 and .0307, respectively). Patient BMI, age, sex, defect location, concomitant procedures, and operative side were not significant predictors for additional surgery. Larger defect size (>3.6 cm2) and prior knee surgery were independent risk factors for additional knee surgery after microfracture.
After microfracture, all PROs demonstrated clinically and statistically significant improvements at 5.7 years. Functionally, male patients benefited more from microfracture than female patients. Microfracture of tibial lesions and multisite microfracture provided less benefit than microfracture of isolated femoral defects. Larger lesion size (>3.6 cm2) and prior knee surgery predicted the need for additional knee surgery after microfracture.
Weber AE, Locker PH, Mayer EN, Cvetanovich GL, Tilton AK, Erickson BJ, Yanke AB, Cole BJ. (2018). Clinical Outcomes After Microfracture of the Knee: Midterm Follow-up. Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine, 6(2), 2325967117753572.
Saltzman BM, Cotter EJ, Stephens JP, Cvetanovich GL, Madden B, Wang K, Yanke AB, Cole BJ. (2018). Preoperative Tibial Subchondral Bone Marrow Lesion Patterns and Associations With Outcomes After Isolated Meniscus Allograft Transplantation. The American Journal of Sports Medicine, 22, 363546517751690.
Yanke AB, Urita A, Shin JJ, Cvetanovich GL, Moran E, Bach BR, Cole BJ, Inoue N, Verma NN. Topographic Analysis of the Distal Femoral Condyle Articular Cartilage Surface: Adequacy of the Graft from Opposite Condyles of the Same or Different Size for the Osteochondral Allograft Transplantation. Cartilage, 91, 1947603517752056.
McCarthy, M. A., Meyer, M. A., Weber, A. E., Levy, D. M., Tilton, A. K., Yanke, A. B., & Cole, B. J. (2017). Can Competitive Athletes Return to High-Level Play After Osteochondral Allograft Transplantation of the Knee? Arthroscopy : the Journal of Arthroscopic & Related Surgery : Official Publication of the Arthroscopy Association of North America and the International Arthroscopy Association, 33(9), 1712–1717.
Lansdown, D. A., Riff, A. J., Meadows, M., Yanke, A. B., & Bach, B. R. (2017). What Factors Influence the Biomechanical Properties of Allograft Tissue for ACL Reconstruction? A Systematic Review. Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research, 1–15.
Meyer, M. A., Leroux, T. S., Levy, D. M., Tilton, A. K., Lewis, P. B., Yanke, A. B., & Cole, B. J. (2017). Flexion Posteroanterior Radiographs Affect Both Enrollment for and Outcomes After Injection Therapy for Knee Osteoarthritis. Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine, 5(5), 2325967117706692.
Meyer MA, McCarthy MA, Gitelis ME, Poland SG, Urita A, Chubinskaya S, Yanke AB, Cole BJ. (2016). Effectiveness of Lavage Techniques in Removing Immunogenic Elements from Osteochondral Allografts. Cartilage.
Saltzman BM, Meyer MA, Weber AE, Poland SG, Yanke AB, & Cole BJ. (2017). Prospective Clinical and Radiographic Outcomes After Concomitant Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction and Meniscal Allograft Transplantation at a Mean 5-Year Follow-up. The American Journal of Sports Medicine, 45(3), 550–562.
Saltzman BM, Griffin JW, Wetters N, Meyer MA, Cole BJ, Yanke AB. (2016) Concomitant Arthroscopic Meniscal Allograft Transplantation and Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction. Arthroscopy Techniques, 5(5), e1161–e1171.
Riboh, J. C., Saltzman, B. M., Yanke, A. B., & Cole, B. J. (2015). Human Amniotic Membrane-Derived Products in Sports Medicine: Basic Science, Early Results, and Potential Clinical Applications. The American Journal of Sports Medicine.
Saltzman BM, Kuhns BD, Weber AE, Yanke AB, Nho SJ. (2016). Stem Cells in Orthopedics: A Comprehensive Guide for the General Orthopedist. American Journal of Orthopedics (Belle Mead, N.J.), 45(5), 280–326.
Fillingham, Y. A., Riboh, J. C., Erickson, B. J., Bach, B. R., & Yanke, A. B. (2016). Inside-Out Versus All-Inside Repair of Isolated Meniscal Tears: An Updated Systematic Review. The American Journal of Sports Medicine.
Riboh JC, Saltzman BM, Yanke AB, Cole BJ. Human Amniotic Membrane-Derived Products in Sports Medicine: Basic Science, Early Results, and Potential Clinical Applications. The American Journal of Sports Medicine.
Riboh JC, Saltzman BM, Yanke AB, Fortier L, Cole BJ. Effect of Leukocyte Concentration on the Efficacy of Platelet-Rich Plasma in the Treatment of Knee Osteoarthritis. The American Journal of Sports Medicine, 0363546515580787.
Shin, J. J., Haro, M., Yanke, A. B., Mascarenhas, R., Romeo, A. A., Cole, B. J., et al. (2015). Topographic Analysis of the Capitellum and Distal Femoral Condyle: Finding the Best Match for Treating Osteochondral Defects of the Humeral Capitellum. Arthroscopy : the Journal of Arthroscopic & Related Surgery : Official Publication of the Arthroscopy Association of North America and the International Arthroscopy Association. doi:10.1016/j.arthro.2014.11.039
Cvetanovich, G. L., Yanke, A. B., McCormick, F., Bach, B. R., & Cole, B. J. (2015). Trends in Meniscal Allograft Transplantation in the United States, 2007 to 2011. Arthroscopy : the Journal of Arthroscopic & Related Surgery : Official Publication of the Arthroscopy Association of North America and the International Arthroscopy Association. doi:10.1016/j.arthro.2014.12.020
Yanke AB, Chalmers PN, Frank RM, Friel NA, Karas V, Cole BJ. (2014). Clinical Outcome of Revision Meniscal Allograft Transplantation: Minimum 2-Year Follow-up. Arthroscopy : the Journal of Arthroscopic & Related Surgery : Official Publication of the Arthroscopy Association of North America and the International Arthroscopy Association. doi:10.1016/j.arthro.2014.06.027
Click here to download the article: Clinical Outcome of Revision Meniscal Allograft Transplantation: Minimum 2-Year Follow-up
Mascarenhas R, Yanke AB, Frank RM, Butty DC, Cole BJ. (2014). Meniscal Allograft Transplantation: Preoperative Assessment, Surgical Considerations, and Clinical Outcomes. The Journal of Knee Surgery. doi:10.1055/s-0034-1382080
Cvetanovich GL, Chalmers PN, Yanke AB, Gupta AK, Klosterman EL, Verma NN, Romeo AA. Feasibility of an osteochondral allograft for biologic glenoid resurfacing. Journal of shoulder and elbow surgery / American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons … [et al.]. doi:10.1016/j.jse.2013.07.038
Gomoll AH, Yanke AB, Kang RW, Chubinskaya S, Williams JM, Bach BR, et al. Long-term effects of bupivacaine on cartilage in a rabbit shoulder model. Am J Sports Med. 2009 Jan.;37(1):72–77. PMID: 18832481
Rue J-PH, Yanke AB, Busam ML, McNickle AG, Cole BJ. Prospective evaluation of concurrent meniscus transplantation and articular cartilage repair: minimum 2-year follow-up. Am J Sports Med. 2008 Sep.;36(9):1770–1778. PMID: 18483199
Chubinskaya S, Hakimiyan A, Rappoport L, Yanke A, Rueger DC, Cole BJ. Response of Human Chondrocytes Prepared for Autologous Implantation to Growth Factors. Journal of Knee Surgery, 2008 Jul;21(3):192-9. PMID: 18686480
Lewis PB, Williams JM, Hallab N, Virdi A, Yanke AB, Cole BJ. Multiple freeze-thaw cycled meniscal allograft tissue: A biomechanical, biochemical, and histologic analysis. J Orthop Res. 2008 Jan.;26(1):49–55. PMID: 17676620
Chubinskaya S, Hakimiyan A, Pacione C, Yanke A, Rappoport L, Aigner T, Rueger D, Loeser RF. Synergistic Effect of IGF-1 and OP-1 on Matrix Formation by Normal and OA Chondrocytes Cultured in Alginate Beads. Osteoarthritis and Cartilage, Apr; 15(4):421-30, 2007. PMID: 1894688
Landis WJ, Jacquet R, Hillyer J, Lowder E, Yanke A, Siperko L, Asamura S, Kusuhara H, Enjo M, Chubinskaya S, Potter K, and Isogai N: Design and assessment of a tissue-engineered model of human phalanges and a small joint. Orthod Craniofac Res, Nov; 8(4): 303-12, 2005. PMID: 16238611
Patellofemoral Disorders – Yanke AB, Wuerz T, Saltzman BM, Butty D, Cole BJ. (2014). Management of Patellofemoral Chondral Injuries. Clinics in Sports Medicine, 33(3), 477–500. doi:10.1016/j.csm.2014.03.004
Yanke AB, Bell R, Lee A, Mather C, Shewman E, Wang VM, Bach BR. Regional mechanical properties of human patellar tendon allografts. Knee surgery, sports traumatology, arthroscopy : official journal of theESSKA. doi:10.1007/s00167-013-2768-5
Yanke AB, Ellman MB, Sherman SL, Bach BR Jr. Graft-Tunnel Mismatch in Bone-Tendon-Bone ACL Reconstruction. Techniques in Orthopaedics. 2012 Jun.;27(2):153–7.
Yanke AB, Bell RL, Lee AS, Shewman E, Wang VM, Bach BR. Central-Third Bone-Patellar Tendon-Bone Allografts Demonstrate Superior Biomechanical Failure Characteristics Compared With Hemi-Patellar Tendon Grafts. Am J Sports Med. Volume 41 Issue 11 November 2013 pp. 2521 – 2526, doi:10.1177/0363546513501780
Chalmers PN, Mall NA, Yanke AB, Bach BR. Contemporary Anterior Cruciate Ligament Outcomes: Does Technique Really Matter? Operative Techniques in Sports Medicine 21(1), 55–63. doi:10.1053/j.otsm.2012.10.008.
Yanke AB, Mall N, Sherman SL, Bach BR. 5 Points On: Endoscopic Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction. Am J Orthop. 2013;42(7):305-308
Yanke AB, Bell R, Lee A, Kang RW, Mather RC, Shewman EF, et al. The Biomechanical Effects of 1.0 to 1.2 Mrad of Gamma Irradiation on Human Bone-Patellar Tendon-Bone Allografts. Am J Sports Med. 2013 Feb 6. PMID: 23388672
Saltzman BM, Leroux T, Meyer MA, Basques BA, Chahal J, Bach BR, Yanke AB, Cole BJ. (2016). The Therapeutic Effect of Intra-articular Normal Saline Injections for Knee Osteoarthritis. The American Journal of Sports Medicine, 363546516680607
Harris JD, Abrams GD, Yanke AB, Hellman MD, Erickson BJ, Bach BR. Suture Anchor-Based Quadriceps Tendon Repair
Surgical Technique and Review of Literature. Orthopedics, 2014; 37(3):183-186
Sherman SL, Chalmers PN, Yanke AB, Bush-Joseph CA, Verma NN, Cole BJ, et al. Graft tensioning during knee ligament reconstruction: principles and practice. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 2012 Oct.;20(10):633–45. PMID: 23027693
Nemani VM, Frank RM, Reinhardt KR, Pascual-Garrido C, Yanke AB, Drakos M, Warren RF. Popliteal venotomy during posterior cruciate ligament reconstruction in the setting of a popliteal artery bypass graft. Arthroscopy. 2012 Feb.;28(2):294–299. PMID: 22244104
Koyonos L, Yanke AB, McNickle AG, Kirk SS, Kang RW, Lewis PB, et al. A randomized, prospective, double-blind study to investigate the effectiveness of adding DepoMedrol to a local anesthetic injection in postmeniscectomy patients with osteoarthritis of the knee. Am J Sports Med. 2009 Jun. p. 1077–1082. PMID: 19279226
Chalmers PN, Frank RM, Gupta AK, Yanke AB, Trenhaile SW, Romeo AA, Bach BR Jr, Verma NN. All-arthroscopic patch augmentation of a massive rotator cuff tear: surgical technique. Arthroscopy Techniques, 2013. 2(4), e447–51. doi:10.1016/j.eats.2013.07.003
Ferry AT, Provencher MT, Yanke AB, Verma NN, Bach BR, Romeo AA. Double-Row Rotator Cuff Repairs: Biomechanical Rationale and Techniques to Optimize Outcomes. Techniques in Shoulder/Elbow Surgery 9(1):1-9, March 2008.
Wang VM, Wang FC, McNickle AG, Friel NA, Yanke AB, Chubinskaya S, et al. Medial versus lateral supraspinatus tendon properties: implications for double-row rotator cuff repair. Am J Sports Med. 2010 Dec.;38(12):2456–2463. PMID: 20929937
Cole BJ, Gomoll AH, Yanke A, Pylawka T, Lewis P, Macgillivray JD, and Williams JM: Biocompatibility of a polymer patch for rotator cuff repair. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc, May; 15(5):632-7, 2007. PMID: 16964514
Yanke AB, Shin J, Pearson I, Bach BR Jr, Romeo A, Cole BJ, , Verma N. Glenoid Bone Loss: Three Dimensional MRI versus CT Reconstructions. Arthroscopy : the Journal of Arthroscopic & Related Surgery : Official Publication of the Arthroscopy Association of North America and the International Arthroscopy Association.
Shin JJ, Mascarenhas R, Patel AV, Yanke AB, Nicholson GP, Cole BJ, Romeo AA, Verma NN. (2015). Clinical outcomes following revision anterior shoulder arthroscopic capsulolabral stabilization. Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery, 1–7.
Mellano CR, Shin JJ, Yanke AB, Verma NN. Disorders of the Long Head of the Biceps Tendon. Instr Course Lect 2015; 64: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery
Chalmers PN, Yanke AB, Cvetanovich GL, Verma NN, Romeo AA: Arthroscopic and open biceps tenodesis distal to the intertubercular groove. Orthopaedic Knowledge Online Journal 2013;11(7): Accessed July 1, 2013.
Ellman MB, Yanke AB, Juhan T, Verma NN, Nicholson GP, Bush-Joseph C, Bach BR, Romeo AA. Open repair of an acute latissimus tendon avulsion in a Major League Baseball pitcher. Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery: 22(7), e19–23. doi:10.1016/j.jse.2013.03.013
Bhatia S, Chalmers PN, Yanke AB, Romeo AA, Verma NN. (2012). Arthroscopic suprascapular nerve decompression: transarticular and subacromial approach. Arthroscopy Techniques, 1(2), e187–92. doi:10.1016/j.eats.2012.07.004
Yanke AB, Ghodadra N, Sherman SL, Romeo A, Verma MV. Arthroscopic Suprascapular Nerve Decompression: Etiology, Diagnosis, and Surgical Technique. American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons Web site: Orthopaedic Knowledge Online 2012 10(2): Accessed February 1, 2012
Singaraju VM, Kang RW, Yanke AB, McNickle AG, Lewis PB, Wang VM, Williams JM, Chubinskaya S, Romeo AA, Cole BJ. Biceps Tendinitis in Chronic Rotator Cuff Tears: A Histological Perspective. Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery, 2008 Nov-Dec;17(6):898-904. PMID: 18786837
Alpert JM, Verma NN, Wysocki R, Yanke AB, Romeo AA. Arthroscopic Treatment of Multidirectional Shoulder Instability with Minimum 270° Labral Repair: Minimum 2 year follow-up. Arthroscopy, 2008 Jun;24(6):704-11. PMID: 18514115
McCormick F, Alpaugh K, Nwachukwu BU, Yanke AB, Martin SD. Endoscopic Repair of Full-Thickness Abductor Tendon Tears: Surgical Technique and Outcome at Minimum of 1-Year Follow-up. Arthroscopy : the journal of arthroscopic & related surgery : official publication of the Arthroscopy Association of North America and the International Arthroscopy Association. doi:10.1016/j.arthro.2013.08.024
Kang RW, Yanke AB, Orias AE, Inoue N, Nho SJ. Emerging Ideas: Novel 3-D Quantification and Classification of Cam Lesions in Patients With Femoroacetabular Impingement. Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res. 2012 Nov.6. PMID: 23129477
Leopold SS. Editor’s Spotlight/Take 5: Novel 3-D Quantification and Classification of Cam Lesions in Patients with Femoroacetabular Impingement (DOI 10.1007/s11999-012-2693-9). Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res. 2013 Feb;471(2):355–7.